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Dyslexia

Written by Dr.Sreejith N Kumar
Date:03-October-2014

Ten variations of the word "Teapot" as written by dyslexics

 

Dyslexia, or developmental reading disorder, is characterized by difficulty with learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension despite normal or above-average intelligence. The World Federation of Neurology defines dyslexia as "a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity” first identified by Oswald Berkhan in 1881 and the term dyslexia coined in 1887 by Rudolf Berlin. The theories of the etiology of dyslexia have been and are evolving.

Dyslexia is the most common learning difficulty and most recognized reading disorder. The prevalence of dyslexia is around 5–10 percent of a given population.

Signs and symptoms

In early childhood
Delays in speech, letter reversal or mirror writing, difficulty knowing left from right and directions, and being easily distracted by background noise.

School age
Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness), a difficulty segmenting words into individual sounds, or blending sounds to make words, a difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems, commonly very poor spelling, whole-word guesses, and tendencies to omit or add letters or words when writing and reading are considered tell-tale signs.

Adolescence and adulthood
Trouble with summarizing a story, memorizing, reading aloud, and learning a foreign language. Adult dyslexics can read with good comprehension, although they tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics and perform more poorly at spelling and nonsense word reading.

Individuals with dyslexia are better identified by measuring reading accuracy, fluency, and writing skills and trying to match these measurements to their level of intelligence as determined from prior observations.

Language
Because different writing systems in different languages may require differentiated parts of the brain to process the visual notation of speech, children with reading problems in one language might not have one in a language with another orthography.

 
Management
Through compensation strategies and therapy, dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write with educational support. There are techniques and technical aids that can manage or even conceal symptoms of the disorder. Removing stress and anxiety alone can sometimes improve written comprehension.

For dyslexia intervention with alphabet writing systems, the fundamental aim is to increase a child's awareness of correspondences between graphemes (letters) and phonemes (sounds), and to relate these to reading and spelling by teaching him or her to blend the sounds into words. It has been found that reinforced collateral training focused towards visual language (reading) and orthographic (spelling) yields longer-lasting gains than mere oral phonological training. Intervention early on while language areas in the brain are still developing is most successful in reducing long-term impacts of dyslexia.

 

Facts
1) Do not assume that a person with dyslexia is just someone who is behind in reading, writing and spelling. The latter can be caused by a variety of factors that are not neurological, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. Dyslexia is caused by an impairment in the brain's ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language.

 

2) Try to imagine the world from a dyslexic person's point of view. A person with dyslexia has trouble seeing letters or words in the intended organization, remembering the order of the words or letters, or processing the words or letters in their correct order, shape, and direction. Here are some things a dyslexic person may experience:
 

  • Seeing some letters as backwards or upside down
  • Seeing text appearing to jump around on a page
  • The inability to tell the difference between letters and numbers that look similar in shape, such as lower case letters (q and p) & (d and b), and numbers (10 & 01). The numbers (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, & 9) could be confusing while (8 & 0) would not be, due to being distinctive in shape. Similarly, distinctive lower case letters (i, m, o, v, & w) and upper case (A, H, I, M, O, T, U, V, W, X, & Y) are typical in shape and therefore not as likely to be confusing
  • The inability to tell the difference between letters that have similar shapes but different orientation, appearing as if in a mirror, such as (db bd) and (qp pq). The word “dill” could appear as “llib.”
  • Seeing the letters correctly, but being unable to sound out words; that is, unable to connect the letters to the sounds they make and understand them
  • Being able to connect the letters and sound out words, but unable to recognize words they have seen before, no matter how many times they see them; each time they would have to start fresh
  • Being able to read the word properly but not able to make sense of or remember what they read, so that they find themselves coming back to read the same passage over and over again
  • Seeing letters as it they are all jumbled up and out of order
  • Seeing the letters and words as if they are all bunched together
  • Seeing the letters of some words as if they appear completely backwards, such as the word "bird" looking like "brid"
  • Seeing the letters and words like normal, but getting a severe headache or feeling sick to their stomach every time they try to read for prolonged periods
     

3) Know how dyslexia is diagnosed. The Dyslexia Determination Test (DDT) is used to investigate specific aspects of language problems and differentiates the child who demonstrates dyslexic tendencies from the individual who is merely behind in reading, writing and spelling due to causes other than a dyslexic pattern. A child must be reading (at least) at a second grade level for the test to be valid. Potential for dyslexia can also be identified genetically. A test can reveal the presence of the DCDC2 Gene now known to be linked to dyslexia (a simple cotton swab is used). Saliva will provide all the DNA to test for DCDC2 in chromosome 6 and 15 as linked to the FGFR3 gene helix mutative gene

 
4) Avoid confusing dyslexia with intellectual disabilities, developmental disorders or autism. Intellectual disabilities are generally characterized by low IQ, while people with dyslexia usually have average or above average IQ. Autism and Asperger's Syndrome are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These are not characteristics associated with dyslexia.

5) Dyslexia can also make mathematics, especially the algebraic forms, an especially difficult challenge. This type of dyslexia is known as "dyscalculia", which is defined as the inability to calculate equations due to poor mental math and memory skills. Signs of dyscalculia in adulthood would include:

  • Poor mental math, difficulty handling money, making change
  • Fails to notice math signs and symbols (+ = - x )
  • Can get problems right, but doesn't understand why, so can't transfer the knowledge to new problems
  • Doesn't remember the basic math operations like addition and multiplication tables
  • Poor sense of direction, trouble reading maps, telling time, understanding schedules
  • Mistakes in working with numbers - reversals, substituting other numbers and leaving numbers out
  • Trouble learning musical concepts or following directions in sports.

The greater collection of symptoms of dyslexia is called "word blindness" which is an old-fashioned term used to mean that a person is unable to recognize and understand words that they see. This was the term used to describe dyslexia when it was first described by doctors about one hundred years ago. It is sometimes still used to describe the symptoms of a person who cannot remember the order and sequence of letters in a word from one time to the next. That is, even after intensive study and drill, the student is unable to recognize the word.

  • Problems with math can be due to other factors, however, which make dyscalculia hard to diagnose:
  • Lack of experience and background knowledge in math
  • Math instruction in the past has not matched the learner's learning style
  • Lack of motivation, lackadaisical (non caring) attitude
  • Below average intelligence
  • Math anxiety
  • Doesn't see mathematics as useful
  • Non-mathematical learning disabilities


The following is a list of notable people who have been diagnosed with dyslexia, or who it is commonly believed suffered from dyslexia.

Bell

Carroll

Curie

Einstein

Faraday

Galilei

Maxwell

Leonardo da Vinci

Tesla

Jules Verne

Anthony Andrews, English actor

Louise Arnold, English author

Michael "Atters" Attree, English satirical writer and comedian

Abhishek Bachchan, Bollywood actor

Geoff Barrow, English musician

Beatrice of York, member of the British Royal Family and fifth in line of succession to the British throne

Alexander Graham Bell, inventor and scientist.

Michael Bennet, United States Senator from Colorado

Robert Benton, screenwriter and film director

Orlando Bloom, actor

Roberto Bolaño, Chilean novelist and poet

Jeremy Bonderman, baseball player

Lara Flynn Boyle, American actress

Richard Branson, entrepreneur

Marcus Brigstocke, English comedian and satirist

Erin Brockovich, legal clerk, socio-environmental activist

Neil Bush, businessman and son of George H. W. Bush

Octavia Butler, science fiction author

Stephen J. Cannell, creator of shows such as The A-Team

Lewis Carroll, author and mathematician.

Gary Cohn, COO of Goldman Sachs

Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr., astronaut and third man to walk on the moon

Carl XVI Gustaf, king of Sweden

Dave Chalk, Canadian broadcaster and technology journalist

John Chambers, CEO of Cisco

Cher, singer and actress, and Chaz Bono (formerly known as Chastity)

Amy Childs, model and reality television personality

Timothy Clifford, British art historian

Jason Conley, American basketball player

Anderson Cooper, American journalist

Ennis Cosby, son of comedian Bill Cosby

Tom Cruise, actor

Pierre Curie, scientist.

Leonardo da Vinci, painter and polymath.

John de Lancie, actor

Samuel R. Delany, science fiction author and literary critic

Patrick Dempsey, actor

Michael Dudikoff, actor

Albert Einstein, scientist

Fae Ellington, OD, Jamaican media personality and lecturer

Alexander Faludy, youngest Cambridge undergraduate for 200 years

Michael Faraday, scientist.

Trevor Ferrell, advocate for the homeless

Steve Fielding, Australian politician

Fannie Flagg, comedienne and author

Ben Fogle, English television presenter

Richard Ford, author

Noel Gallagher, musician

Paul Frappier, musician and hip hop MC

Galileo Galilei, scientist.

Whoopi Goldberg, American actress, comedienne, TV personality

Alison Goldfrapp, English musician

Terry Goodkind, American writer

Frank Gore, American football player

Mike Gravel, former United States Senator from Alaska

Jerry Hall, model

Susan Hampshire, actress

Salma Hayek, actress

John Hickenlooper, Governor of Colorado

Jack Horner, paleontologist

Anthony Hopkins, actor

John Irving, novelist

Bruce Jenner, athlete

Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Inc.

Ingvar Kamprad, industrialist, founder of IKEA

Dean Kamen, inventor, Segway human transport, Luke arm, FIRST Lego League

Paul Kanjorski, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania

Cath Kidston, designer and businesswoman

Mollie King, singer and songwriter

Laura Kirkpatrick, model

Keira Knightley, actress

Willem Johan Kolff, physician

David Koresh, leader of the Branch Davidians

J. F. Lawton, writer, producer and director

Angie Le Mar, comedian

Peter Leitch, New Zealand businessman and philanthropist.

John Lennon, musician, songwriter

Jay Leno, talk show host and comedian

Tom Lewis, golfer

Kenny Logan, rugby player

Greg Louganis, Olympic diver

Dan Malloy, Governor of Connecticut

James Clerk Maxwell, scientist.

Mireille Mathieu, French singer

Steve McQueen, artist and film director

Kendrick Meek, US Representative from Florida

Mika, singer-songwriter

Alyssa Milano, American actress

Dorrit Moussaieff, First Lady of Iceland

Shlomo Moussaieff, jewellery businessman and Bible expert

Don Mullan, Irish author, producer and humanitarian

Jaime Murray, English actress

Róisín Murphy, Irish singer

Paul Oakenfold, a record producer and trance DJ

Olav V of Norway, reign 1957–1991

Jamie Oliver, chef and television host

Paul Orfalea, founder of FedEx Kinko's

Ozzy Osbourne, musician

Brendan O'Carroll, Irish actor

Diamond Dallas Page (Page Falkinburg), professional wrestler, actor and author

Theo Paphitis, businessman, panelist on Dragons' Den

Tom Pellereau, inventor

Pablo Picasso, Spanish artist, sculptor

Ferdinand Piëch, Austrian business magnate

Hal Prewitt, entrepreneur and racing driver

Scott Quinnell, rugby player

Daniel Powter, singer and songwriter

Robert Rauschenberg, American artist

Keanu Reeves, actor

Nicolas Winding Refn, film director

Iwan Rheon, Welsh actor and singer/songwriter.

Guy Ritchie, film director

David Rockefeller, American business executive and philanthropist.

Richard Rogers, architect

Louis Rosenberg, American Entrepreneur, author, screenwriter, inventor, and professor

Lee Ryan, singer and songwriter

Rex Ryan, head coach, New York Jets

Mark Schlereth, American football player

Charles Schwab, founder of U.S. brokerage firm

Tim Scott, guitarist

Jo Self, artist

Peter Shumlin, Governor of Vermont

Bryan Singer, film director

John Skoyles, neuroscientist and evolutionary psychologist.

Neil Smith, American football player

Steven Spielberg, film director

Jackie Stewart, Scottish racing driver

Joss Stone, singer

Helen B. Taussig cardiologist

Tim Tebow, American football player

Nikola Tesla, scientist and engineer.

Bella Thorne, American actress

Kara Tointon, English actress

Jules Verne, French author.

Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, heiress-apparent to the Swedish throne

Lindsay Wagner, actress

Butch Walker, singer and record producer

Ben Way, entrepreneur

Bob Weir, guitarist

Florence Welch, English musician.

Toyah Willcox, actress and singer

Mark Wilkinson, furniture designer

Holly Willoughby, television presenter

Henry Winkler, actor, spokesman for the Dyslexia Foundation

Lee Kuan Yew, first Prime Minister of Singapore

Benjamin Zephaniah, poet

 

Here are the names of some of the many talented and accomplished individuals who are dyslexic, or historic figures who had the pattern of talents and learning difficulties associated with dyslexia or related learning styles:


Actors & Entertainers:


• Harry Anderson

• Orlando Bloom

• Harry Belafonte

• Charley Boorman

• Jim Carrey

• Danny Glover

• Whoopi Goldberg

• Susan Hampshire

• Jay Leno

• Christopher Lowell

• Keanu Reeves.

• Kiera Knightley

• Oliver Reed.

• Billy Bob Thornton.

• Tom Smothers

• Vince Vaughn

• Henry Winkler

• Loretta Young

Inventors & Scientists:
• Ann Bancroft, Arctic Explorer.

• Alexander Graham Bell.

• John Britten, Inventor.

• Pierre Curie, Physicist (1903 Nobel Prize).

• Thomas Edison.

• Albert Einstein.

• Michael Faraday.

• Carol Greider, Molecular Biologist, awarded 2009 Nobel Prize in Medicine.

• Jack Horner, Paleontologist.

• Dr. Peter Lovatt, psychologist and dancer.

• Dr. James Lovelock.

• Paul MacCready "Engineer of the Century."

• Archer Martin, Chemist (1952 Nobel Laureate)

• Matthew H. Schneps, Astrophysicist

• John R. Skoyles, Brain Researcher.

 Artists, Designers, & Architects:
• Leonardo da Vinci.

• Ansel Adams, Photographer.

• David Bailey, Photographer.

• Chuck Close.

• Ignacio Gomez, Muralist.

• Tommy Hilfiger, Clothing Designer.

• Ian Marley, Contemporary Artist, South Africa.

• Pablo Picasso.

• Robert Rauschenberg.

• Auguste Rodin.

• Bennett Strahan

• Robert Toth

• Jørn Utzon (architect, designed Sydney Opera house)

• Andy Warhol.

• Willard Wigan, micro sculptor.

 Musicians & Vocalists:
• Cher.

• Brad Little.

• John Lennon.

• Nigel Kennedy, Violinist.

• Bob Weir, Grateful Dead Guitarist.

Athletes:
• Muhammad Ali, World Heavyweight Champion Boxer

• Meryl Davis Olympic Gold Medalist, Figure Skating.

• Duncan Goodhew, Olympic Swimmer

• Bruce Jenner, Olympic Decathlon Gold Medalist

• Magic Johnson

• Greg Louganis

• Bob May, golfer.

• Diamond Dallas Page, World Wrestling Champion.

• Steve Redgrave, Olympic Gold Medalist (rowing).

• Nolan Ryan, Baseball Pitcher.

• Rex Ryan, Coach.

• Jackie Stewart, race car driver.

Physicians & Surgeons
• Harvey Cushing, Surgeon.

• Fred Epstein, Neurosurgeon.

 Political Leaders:
• King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.

• Andrew Jackson.

• Dan Malloy, Governor of Connecticut.

• Gavin Newsom, Mayor of San Francisco; Lieutenant Governor of California.

• Nelson Rockefeller.

• Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator.

• Woodrow Wilson.

• George Washington.

Entrepreneurs & Business Leaders:
• Richard Branson,Founder of Virgin Enterprises.

• John T Chambers,CEO of Cisco Systems.

• Henry Ford.

• William Hewlett, Co-Founder, Hewlett-Packard.

• Ingvar Kamprad, founder of IKEA.

• Sir Peter Leitch, New Zealand businessman

• Craig McCaw, Telecommunications Visionary.

• O.D. McKee, founder of McKee Foods.

• David Neeleman, CEO of jetBlue Airways.

• Paul J. Orfalea, founder of Kinko's.

• Charles Schwab, Investor.

• Ted Turner, President, Turner Broadcasting Systems.

• Robert Woodruff, President of Coca-Cola, 1923-1954.

• Frank W. Woolworth.

 Filmmakers:
• Robert Benton.

• Nicole Betancourt, Emmy-winning filmmaker.

• Walt Disney.

• Søren KraghJacobsen (Danish film director).

• Steven Spielberg

Writers & Journalists:
• Scott Adams, Cartoonist (Dilbert)

• Hans Christian Andersen

• Avi

• Jeanne Betancourt, (Author of "My Name is Brain Brian").

• Stephen Cannell, television writer & novelist.

• John Corrigan, novelist.

• Larry Chambers.

• Agatha Christie.

• John Edmund Delezen, author of Eye of the Tiger and Red Plateau.

• Andrew Dornenburg, award-winning author and chef.

• Richard Engel, NBC Foreign Correspondent.

• Fannie Flagg (Author of "Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe").

• F. Scott Fitzgerald.

• Gustave Flaubert.

• Sally Gardner, children's writer and illustrator.

• Terry Goodkind fantasy writer, author of The Sword of Truth series.

• Byron Pitts, CBS News Correspondent.

• Patricia Polacco, Children's Author and Illustrator.

• Eileen Simpson (Author of "Reversals").

• Natasha Solomons, contemporary novelist.

• Philip Schultz, winner of 2008 Pulitzer Prize for poetry.

• Elizabeth Daniels Squire(author of mystery novels).

• Bernie Taylor, author of Biological Time.

• Victor Villaseñor, author of bestselling novel, Rain of Gold

• William Butler Yeats, poet.